And there are mantle–crust domains between, and within which, argon circulates during global tectonic processes, magma genesis, and mixing of crustal materials.This has significant implications for the validity of K-Ar and This paper was originally published in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Creationism, pp.503–525 (1998), and is reproduced here with the permission of the Creation Science Fellowship of Pittsburgh ( Ngauruhoe is an andesite stratovolcano of 2291 m elevation, rising above the Tongariro volcanic massif within the Tongariro Volcanic Center of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand (fig.

Ngauruhoe in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, produced andesite flows in 19 and avalanche deposits in 1975.

Potassium-argon “dating” of five of these flows and deposits yielded K-Ar model “ages” from Ar* content.

A survey of anomalous K-Ar “dates” indicates they are common, particularly in basalts, xenoliths, and xenocrysts such as diamonds that are regarded as coming from the upper mantle.

In fact, it is now well established that there are large quantities of excess K and not yet outgassed.

Ruapehu (about 12 km to the south), Ngauruhoe is an imposing, almost perfect cone that rises more than 1000 m above the surrounding landscape.

Eruptions from a central 400 m diameter crater have constructed the steep (33°) outer slopes of the cone.34 The Taupo Volcanic Zone, a volcanic arc and marginal basin of the Taupo-Hikurangi arc-trench (subduction) system,5 is a southward extension on the Tonga-Kermadec arc into the continental crustal environment of New Zealand’s North Island.

It has been interpreted as oblique subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Australian plate.

The zone extends approximately 300 km north-northeast across the North Island from Ohakune to White Island (fig.

1) and is up to 50 km wide in the central part, narrowing northward and southward. Ngauruhoe in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, showing the main structural features.