On the positive side, mechanisms for reducing or ending these conflicts are also numerous, and few of them have been thought through, much less applied. Part One lists problem areas, analyses tensions, and considers the dangers they pose.Some of these arise predominantly from the minority Muslim population (both immigrant and convert), others from the majority Western side.Part Two recommends mechanisms for containing or eliminating these tensions, again with separate analysis of the Muslims and the native Western populations.

To begin with, however, we present a few words by way of background.

More than thirteen million Muslims, both immigrants and converts, live today in Western Europe and the United States.

In Western Europe, Muslims number about twelve million.

The authors divided the work as follows: Durán drafted the study, Pipes added to it, then it went back and forth between them several times.

Durán concentrated on research, Pipes on presentation, though their efforts overlapped and both authors take responsibility for the final product.

Daniel Pipes and Khalid Durán Philadelphia and Washington August 1993 INTRODUCTION As the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City and recent skinhead violence in Germany suggest, the potential for conflict between Muslims resident in Europe and North America with the indigenous Christian and Jewish populations is great and multifaceted.

The list of actual conflicts is long, and almost every one of them seems to be growing.

We thank the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) for a grant which permitted the authors to write this study.

Pipes also relied on funding by the Middle East Council of the Foreign Policy Research Institute.

Durán profited from opportunities for research and data collection at the European University Center for Peace Studies at Burgschlaining, Austria; the Institute of Iranian Studies, Freie Universität Berlin; and the Institute of Oriental Studies, University of Oslo.

This study forms part of larger project, for which funding has been received from the Schumann Foundation and the Littauer Foundation.